Sunday, 6 March 2016


Chromatography—name derived from latin word Chroma meaning color. The technique of chromatography is based on the difference in the rates at which the components of mixture are absorbed.
Father of periodic table—Mendeleev.
Acid—sour in taste/ turns blue litmus red/ contains replaceable hydrogen/ gives  hydrogen ion in aqueous solution(Arrhenius theorem)/ can donate a proton(Bronsted & Lowry theorem)/ can accept electron(Lewis theorem).
Citric acid- lemons or oranges/ Lactic acid- sour milk/ Butyric acid- rancid butter/ Tartaric acid- Grapes/ Acetic acid- vinegar/ Maleic acid- apples/ Carbonic acid- soda aerated drinks/ Stearic acid- fats/ Oxalic acid- tomato, wood sorrel.
Hydrochloric acid is used in digestion.
Nitric acid is used in purification of gold and silver.
Conc. H2SO4 and HNO3 is used to wash iron for its galvanization.
Oxalic acid is used to remove rust spot.
Boric acid is a constituent of eye wash.
Formic acid is present in red ants.
Uric acid is present in the urine of animals.
HCL uses- present in gastric juices/ used as a bathroom cleaner/ as a pickling agent before galvanization/ in the tanning of leather/ in the dying and textile industry/ in the manufacture of gelatin from bones.
HNO3 uses- manufacture of fertilizers like ammonium nitrate/ for explosives like TNT, TNB, Picric acid/ Nitro glycerine(Dynamite)/ found in rain water/ forms nitrates in soil/ in the manufacture of rayon/ in the manufacture of dyes and drugs.
H2SO4 uses- in lead acid storage battery/ in manufacture of HCL/ in manufacture of Alum/ in manufacture of fertilizers, drugs, detergents and explosives.
Boric acid uses- as an antiseptic.
Phosphoric acid uses- its calcium salts makes our bones/ it forms phosphatic fertilizers.
Ascorbic acid uses-source of vitamin C.
Acetic/Citric acid uses- flavouring agent and food preservative.
Tartaric acid uses- souring agent for pickles/ a component of baking powder.
Water soluble bases are called alkali ex. NaOH, KOH.
Calcium Chloride—dehydrating agent used for removing moisture from gases.
Zinc phosphide is used for killing rats.
Wood furnitures are coated with zinc chloride to prevent termites.
Excess copper in human beings causes disease called Wilson.
Galvanized iron is coated with zinc.
Rusting of iron is chemical change which increases the weight of iron.
Calcium hydride is called hydrolith.
Calcium hydride is used to prepare fire proof and water proof clothes.
In flash-bulb, magnesium wire is kept in atmosphere of nitrogen gas.
Titanium is called strategic metal because it is lighter than iron.
Group 1st element are called alkali metals because its hydroxides are alkaline.
Babbitt metal contains 89% Tin(Sn), 9% Antimony(Sb), and 2% Copper(Cu).
Gun powder contains 75% Potassium nitrate, 10% Sulphur and 15% Charcoal.
Chromium trioxide is known as chromic acid.
Nichrome wire is used in electrical heater.
Potassium Carbonate is known as pearl ash.
Generally transition metals and their compounds are coloured.
Zeolite is used to remove hardness of water.
In cytochrome iron is present.
Selenium metal is used in photoelectric cell,
Gallium metal is liquid at room temperature.
Palladium metal is used in aeroplane.
Radium is extracted from pitch blende.
World famous Eiffel tower has steel and cement base.
Actinides are radioactive elements.
Cadmium rod is used in nuclear reactor to slow down the speed of neutron.
Sodium peroxide is used in submarine and also to purify closed air in hospital.
Co(60) is used in cancer.
Onion and garlic odour due to potassium.
Oxides of metals are alkaline.
Silver and copper are the best conductor of electricity.
Gold and silver are the most malleable metals.
Mercury and iron produces more resistance in comparison to the other during the flow of electricity.
Lithium is the lightest and the most reductant element.
In fireworks, the crimson color is due to presence of strontium.
Green color in fireworks is due to the presence of barium.
Barium Sulphate is used in x-ray of abdomen as Barium metal.
Osmium is the heaviest metal and Platinum is the hardest.
Zinc oxide is known as the flower of zinc. It is also known as the Chinese white and is used as white paint.
Silver chloride is used in photochromatic glass.
Silver Iodide is used in artificial rain.
Silver nitrate is used as a marker during election. It is kept in colored bottle to avoid decomposition.
Silver spoon is not used in egg food because it forms black silver sulphide.
To harden gold, copper is added to it. Pure gold is 24 carat.
Iron pyrites is known as fools’ gold.
Mercury is kept in iron pot because it doesn’t form amalgam with iron.
In tubelight there is a vapour of mercury and argon.
Tetra-ethyl lead is used as anti-knocking compound.
Lead pipe is not used for drinking water because it forms poisonous lead hydroxide.
Fuse wire is made up of lead and tin.
Diamond has maximum refractive index and due to total internal reflection, it has lustre.
Choloform in sunlight forms poisonous has Phosgene(COCL2).
To decrease the basicity of soil gypsum is added.
In the preparation of talcum powder theo phestal mineral is used.
Potassium chloride is most suitable for removal of permanent hardness of water.
To avoid melting of ice gelatin is used.
When dry ice is heated it directly converts to gas.
Saccharine is prepared from toluene.
Cream is a type of milk in which the amount of fat is increased while the amount of water is decreased.
Bones contains about 58% calcium phosphate.
Phosphine gas is used in voyage as Holmes Signal.
Chlorine gas bleaches the color of flower.
Red phosphorous is used in match industry.
Urea contains 46% nitrogen.
In the electroplating of vessel NH4Cl is used.
Power alcohol is prepared from mixing pure alcohol in benzene which is used as rocket fuel.
Artificial perfumes are prepared from Ethyl acetate.
Urea was the 1st organic compound synthesized in laboratory.
Vinegar contains 10% acetic acid.
Acetylene is used for light production.
Ferric chloride is used to stop bleeding.
Cesium is used in solar cells.
Yellow phosphorous is kept in water.
Sea weeds contains iodine.
For artificial respiration a mixture of oxygen and helium gas is used in cylinders.
In cold places, to decrease the freezing point ethylene glycol is used.
Hydrogen peroxide is used for oil paintings.
Heaviest element is Osmium.
Sodium is kept in Kerosene oil.
Radon is the heaviest gas.
Sulphuric acid is known as the oil of vitriol.
Polonium has the maximum number of isotopes.
Flourine is the most oxidizing agent.

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