Saturday, 23 January 2016


Mohan Das Karamchand Gandhi was a lawyer, trained in Britain. He went to South Africa in 1893 and resided there for twenty one years. The treatment of the Indians in South Africa by the British provoked his conscience. He decided to fight against the policy of racial discrimination of the South African Government. During the course of his struggle against the government he evolved the technique of Satyagraha (non-violent insistence for truth and
justice). Gandhi succeeded in this struggle in South Africa.

He returned to India in 1915. In 1916, he founded the Sabarmati Ashram at Ahmedabad to practice the ideas of truth and non-violence. Gopal Krishna Gokhale advised him to tour the country mainly in the villages to understand the people and their problems. His first experiment in Satyagraha began at Champaran in Bihar in 1917 when he inspired the peasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system. He also organised a satyagraha to support the peasants of the Kheda districts of Gujarat. These peasants were not able to pay their revenue because of crop failure and epidemics. In Ahmedabad, he
organized a movement amongst cotton mill workers.

The Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-22)

Gandhiji by this time, was convinced that no useful purpose would be served by supporting the government. He was also emboldened by his earlier success in Bihar In the light of the past events and the actions of British government, he decided to launch a nationwide satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act in 1919. He threatened to start the non-cooperation movement in case the government failed to accept his demands. Why do you think Gandhiji protested against the Act? It was because the Act gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities 
and allowed detention of political prisoners without any trial for two years. Gandhiji wanted non violent civil disobedience against such unjust laws. The government paid no heed to it. Gandhiji, therefore, started his non-cooperation movement in August 1920, in which he appealed to the people not to cooperate with the British government. At this time, the Khilafat movement started by the Muslims and the Noncooperation movement led by Gandhi merged into one common confrontation against the British Government.

For this Gandhi laid down an elaborate programme-
 (1) Surrender of titles and honorary offices as well as resignation from nominated seats in local bodies;
(2) refusal to attend official and non-official functions; 
(3) gradual withdrawal of children from officially controlled schools and colleges; 
(4) gradual boycott of British courts by lawyers and litigants; 
(5) refusal on the part of the military, clerical and labouring classes to offer themselves as recruits for service in Mesopotamia;
(6) boycott of elections to the legislative council by candidates and voters; 
(7) boycott of foreign goods and National schools and colleges.

 Later, it was supplemented with a constructive programme which had three principal features: 
(1) promotion of ‘Swadeshi’, particularly hand-spinning and weaving; 
(2) Removal of untouchability among Hindus; 
(3) promotion of Hindu-Muslim unity. 

Due to this appeal of Gandhiji, an unusual frenzy overtook the country. A large number of people, dropping their differences, took part in this movement. Over two-thirds of the voters abstained from taking part in the elections to the Council, held in November, 1920. Thousands of students and teachers left their schools and colleges and new Indian educational centers were started by them. Lawyers like Moti Lal Nehru, C. R. Das, C. Rajagopalachari and Asif Ali boycotted the courts. Legislative Assemblies were also boycotted. Foreign goods were boycotted and the clothes were put on bonfire.

But, during this movement some incidents took place that did not match with the views of Gandhiji. The non-violent Non-Cooperation Movement, which started auspiciously, was marked by violence in August, 1921. The government started taking serious action. Prominent leaders were arrested. In two months, nearly 30,000 people were imprisoned. The outbreak of violence cautioned Gandhi. Mob violence took place on February 9, 1922, at Chauri Chaura village, in Gorakhpur district of UP. This was followed by more violence at Bareilly. Gandhi suspended his noncooperation on February 14, 1922. He was arrested at Ahmadabad on March 18, 1922, and sentenced to six years simple imprisonment. The non-cooperation movement failed to achieve success, yet it succeeded to prepare a platform for the future movements. After taking back the Non-Cooperation movement, Gandhiji and
his followers were busy in creative activities in village areas. By this he gave the message to the people to remove the cast based animosity.

C. R. Das, Motilal Nehru and other like minded persons hatched out a novel plan of non-cooperation from within the reformed councils. They formed the Swaraj Party on January 01, 1923. C. R. Das was the president of the party and Motilal Nehru the Secretary. The party was described as ‘a party within the Congress’ and not a rival organization. But, they could neither end nor amend the Act of 1919. In 1927, British government appointed a commission under the chairmanship of Sir John Simon. The Commission was appointed to study the reforms of 1919 and suggest further measures for Constitutional reforms. The Commission had no Indian member in it. The Indians boycotted this all-White commission. Therefore, when this Commission arrived in India, it faced protests all over the country. Black flags were shown, demonstrations and Hartals took place all over the country and the cry of ‘Simon go back’ was heard. These demonstrators were lathi charged at a number
of places by the British Police. Lala Lajpat Rai was severely assaulted by the police 
and he succumbed to his injuries. This agitation against the Simon Commission gave a new strength to the National Movement of India.

Meanwhile, Indian political leaders were busy in drafting a Constitution. This is known as Nehru Report which formed the outline of the Constitution. Among its important
recommendations were a declaration of rights, a parliamentary system of government,
adult franchise and an independent judiciary with a supreme court at its head. Most of its recommendations formed the basis of the Constitution of independent India which was adopted more than twenty years later.

 At the historic annual session of Congress in Lahore in 1929, the Congress committed itself to a demand for PurnaSwaraj or complete independence and issued a call to the country to celebrate 26th January as Purna-Swaraj Day. On January 26, 1930, the Congress celebrated ‘Independence Day’. On the same day in 1950 the Constitution of Independent India was adopted, making India a sovereign, democratic socialist republic. Since then January 26th is celebrated as Republic Day.

Dandi March

Around the same time, the government made a new law. They imposed taxes on the use of salt. This was opposed by the people, as salt was the basic need of the people. But, no attention was paid to demands of the people. During March-April,1930, Gandhi marched from his Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi on the Gujarat coast for the purpose of raiding the Government Salt. The violation of salt law was his first challenge to the government. It was a peaceful march. Gandhi committed a technical breach of the Salt Law on 6
thApril, 1930, when he picked up the scattered sea salt from the coast to break this Law. In this movement farmers, traders and 
women took part in large numbers. 

The government arrested him in May 1930 and put him in Yervada jail at Poona. The campaign had a significant effect on British attitude toward Indian independence. Gandhi-Irwin Pact in 1931 was one of its examples. Gandhiji also went to London in 1931 and participated in the second round table conference as the sole representative of the Congress but no settlement could be arrived at. Although, Gandhi’s arrest removed him from the active leadership of the movement, this civil disobedience continued. Special stress was laid on boycott of foreign goods particularly clothes.

The Civil Disobedience Movement, though a failure, was a vital phase in the struggle
for the freedom. It promoted unity among Indians of different regions under the Congress banner. It provided an opportunity to recruit younger people and educate them for positions of trust and responsibility in the organization as also in provincial administration, which was captured in the 1937 elections. It gave wide publicity to political ideas and methods throughout the country and generated political awareness even in remote villages.


The mild policies of the Moderates in the Congress led to the rise of passionate,radical nationalists, who came to be called the ‘Garam Dal’. Thus the first phase of the nationalist movement came to an end with government reaction against the Congress on the one hand and a split in the Congress in 1907 on the other. That is why the period after 1905 till 1918 can be referred to as the ‘Era of Passionate Nationalists or Garam Dal’. Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Bipin Chandra Pal (Lal-Bal-Pal) were important leaders of this Radical group. 

When the Moderates were in the forefront of the action, they had maintained a low profile but now they swung into action. Their entry marked the beginning of a new trend and a new face in India’s struggle for freedom. According to them, the Moderates had failed to define India’s political goals and the methods adopted by them were mild and ineffective.
Besides, the Moderates remained confined to the upper, landed class and failed to
enlist mass support as a basis for negotiating with the British.

The Garam Dal realized that the British were out to exploit Indians, destroy their self-sufficiency and drain India of its wealth. They felt that Indians should now become free of foreign rule and govern themselves. This group, instead of making petitions to the government, believed in organizing mass protests, criticizing government policies, boycotting foreign goods and use of Swadeshi (home-made) goods etc. They did not believe in depending on the mercy of the Britishers, but believed that freedom was their right. Bal Gangadhar Tilak gave a slogan ‘Freedom is our birth right and we must have it’.

In 1916 the two groups were again united with the efforts of Mrs. Annie Besant. She started working for the Home rule movement in 1914. She was convinced that India should be granted Self-Government. In 1916, Muslim League and Congress also came to an
understanding with each other and signed the Lucknow Pact. Later, Mahatma
Gandhi, Jawahar Lal Nehru, Subhash Chandra Bose became the eminent figures of
Indian National Congress, who led the freedom movement of India forward.

As the radical movement grew stronger the British began to look for ways and means to break the unity among Indian. They tried to do this through the partition of Bengal and by sowing the seed of communalism among Indian people. They motivated Muslims to form a permanent political association of their own. In December, 1906, during the Muhammadan Educational conference in Dacca, Nawab Salim Ullah Khan raised the idea of establishing a Central Muhammadan Association to take care of Muslim interests. 

Accordingly, on 30th December, 1906, the All India Muslim League was founded. Another prominent person, Aga Khan was chosen as its president. The main objective of the league was to protect and advance the rights of Muslims in India and represent their needs to the government. By encouraging the issue of separate electorates, the government sowed the seed of communalism and separatism among Indians. The formation of the Muslim League is considered to be the first fruit of the British master strategy of ‘Divide and Rule’. Mohammad Ali Jinnah later joined the League.

Do you remember reading about the Indian Councils Act 1892, which enlarged the legislature by adding members to the Central Legislative Assembly? The Council Act
of 1909 was an extension of the 1892 reforms, also known as the Morley-Minto Reforms after the names of the then Secretary of State (Lord Morley) and the then Viceroy (Lord Minto). It increased the members of the Legislative Assembly from sixteen to sixty. A few non-elected members were also added. Though the members of the Legislative Council were increased, they had no real powers. They remained mainly advisory in character. They could not stop any bills from being passed. Nor did they have any power over the budget

The British made another calculated move to sow the seed of communalism in Indian
politics by introducing separate electorates for the Muslims. This meant that from
the constituencies dominated by Muslims only Muslim candidates could be elected.
Hindus could only vote for Hindus, and Muslims could only vote for Muslims. Many
leaders protested against this communal electorate policy of the British to ‘Divide
and Rule’.


 Curzon announced the partition of Bengal.

The reason for partition was given as an attempt to improve administration. But the real aim was to ‘Divide and Rule’. The partition was done in order to create a separate State for Muslims and so introduce the poison of communalism in the country. However the Indians viewed the partition as an attempt by the British to disrupt the growing national movement in Bengal and divide the Hindus and Muslims of the region. Widespread agitation ensued in the streets and in the press. People of different parts of India opposed the partition of Bengal all over the country. This opposition was carried on by organized meetings, processions and demonstrations etc. Hindus and Muslims tied ‘rakhi’ on each other’s hands to show their unity and their protest.

The use of Swadeshi (made in our own country by our own people) goods, business,
national education and Indian languages were encouraged. The new nationalist spirit of self reliance- shed the fear of repression including imprisonment and painful torture by the British rule. It was Bal Gangadhar Tilak who realized the importance of boycott as a weapon that could be used to paralyze the whole British administrative machinery in India. 

The boycott and Swadeshi movements were instrumental in the establishment of swadeshi enterprises - textile mills, banks, hosiery, tanneries, chemical works and insurance companies. Swadeshi stores were opened. Volunteers supplied goods at the doorstep of every household. The movement spread to all classes and groups of people. Everyone, including women and children, came forward to take part. The most active were school and college students. 

This made the British reverse the partition of Bengal and unite it in 1911. During this time, the role of Radical Nationalists in the Indian National Congress, who were called the ‘Garam Dal’, came to be appreciated. They tried to involve people from all classes and groups including peasants, worker, students as well as women. They succeeded in uniting the Indian people against the common enemy - the British. The young people were
roused to the highest level of patriotism and zeal to free their country. They helped in making people self confident and self reliant. They also revived the Indian Cottage


The Indian National Congress was founded by Allan Octavian Hume in 1885. Hume was a retired Civil Service Officer. He saw a growing political consciousness among the Indians and wanted to give it a safe, constitutional outlet so that their resentment would not develop into popular agitation against the British rule in India. 

He was supported in this scheme by the Viceroy, Lord Dufferin, and by a group of eminent Indians. Womesh Chandra Banerjee of Calcutta was elected as the first President.The Indian National Congress represented an urge of the politically conscious Indians to set up a national organization to work for their betterment. Its leaders had complete faith in the British Government and in its sense of justice. 

They believed that if they would place their grievances before the government reasonably, the British would certainly try to rectify them. Among the liberal leaders, the most prominent were Firoz Shah Mehta, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Dada Bhai Naoroji, Ras Behari Bose, Badruddin Tayabji, etc. From 1885 to 1905, the Indian National Congress had a very narrow social base. Its influence was confined to the urban educated Indians. The early aims of this organization were limited only to communicate with British government on behalf of the Indian people and voice their grievances. It was rightly called the era of the Moderates. You will soon find out why?

 Initial stages of Indian National Congress
The congress placed its demands before the government always in the form of petitions and worked within the framework of law. It was for this reason that the early Congress leaders were referred to as ‘Moderates’. 

During its first twenty years the Congress made moderate demands. The members placed their demands before the Government always in the form of petitions and worked within the framework of law. It was for this reason that the early Congress leaders were referred to as ‘Moderates’ They asked for: 

(a) representative legislatures, 
(b) Indianization of services,
 (c) reduction of military expenditure, 
(d) education, employment and holding of the ICS (Indian Civil Services) examination in India, 
(e) decrease in the burden of the cultivators, 
(f) defense of civil rights, 
(g) separation of the judiciary from the executive,
 (h) change in the tenancy laws, 
(i) reduction in land revenue and salt duty, 
(j) policies to help in the growth of Indian industries and handicrafts, 
(k) introduction of welfare programmes for the people.

Unfortunately, their efforts did not bring many changes in the policies and administration
of the British in India. In the beginning, the Britishers had a favourable attitude towards
the Congress. But, by 1887, this attitude began to change. They did not fulfill the demands of the Moderates. The only achievement of the Congress was the enactment of the Indian Councils Act, 1892 that enlarged the legislature by adding a few nonofficial members and passing of a resolution for holding Indian Civil Services Examination simultaneously in London and in India. 

Many leaders gradually lost faith in the Constitutional process. Even though the Congress failed to achieve its goal, it succeeded in creating national awakening and instilling in the minds of the Indian people a sense of belonging to one Nation. They provided a forum for the Indians to discuss major national issues. By criticizing the government policies, they gave the people valuable political training. Though, They were not ready to take aggressive steps which would bring them in direct conflict with the Government. The most significant achievement was the foundation of a strong national movement. 

The Britishers who were earlier supporting the Moderates soon realized that the
movement could turn into a National force that would drive them out of the country. This totally changed their attitude. They passed strict laws to control education and curb the press. Minor concessions were given so as to win over some Congress leaders. The British Viceroy, Lord Curzon was a staunch imperialist and believed in the superiority of the English people. He passed an Act in 1898, making it an offence to provoke people against the British rulers. He passed the Indian Universities Act in 1904, imposing stiff control over Indian Universities. Curzon was out to suppress the rising Nationalism in India. This was evident from what he did in 1905.


The rise of Nationalism is reflected in the spirit of Renaissance in Europe when freedom from religious restrictions led to the enhancement of national identity. This expression of Nationalism was furthered by the French Revolution. The political changes resulted in the passing of sovereignty from the hands of an absolute monarch to the French citizens, who had the power to constitute the nation and shape its destiny. The watchwords of the French Revolution - Liberty, Equality and Fraternity - inspired the whole world. Many other revolutions like the American Revolution, the Russian Revolution, etc. also strengthened the idea of Nationalism.

Rise of Nationalism in India
For India, the making of national identity was a long process whose roots can be drawn from the ancient era. India as a whole had been ruled by emperors like Ashoka and  amudragupta in ancient times and Akbar to Aurangzeb in Medieval times. But, it was only in the 19
th Century that the concept of a national identity and national consciousness emerged. This growth was intimately connected to the anti-colonial movement about which you have already read in lesson 4. The social, economic and political factors had inspired the people to define and achieve their national identity. People began discovering their unity in the process of their struggle against colonialism.

The sense of being oppressed under colonial rule provided a shared bond that tied different groups together. Each class and group felt the effects of colonialism differently. Their experiences were varied, and their notions of freedom were not always the same. Several other causes also contributed towards the rise and growth of Nationalism. One set of laws of British Government across several regions led to political and administrative unity. This strengthened the concept of citizenship and one nation among Indians. 

Do you remember reading the lesson Popular Resistance Movements? Do you remember the way the peasants and the tribals rebelled when their lands and their right to livelihood was taken away? Similarly this economic exploitation by the British agitated other people to unite and react against British Government’s control over their lives and resources. The social and religious reform movements of the 19th century also contributed to the feeling of Nationalism. Do you remember reading about Swami Vivekananda, Annie Besant, Henry Derozio and many others? They revived the glory of ancient India, created faith among the people in their religion and culture and thus gave the message of love for their motherland.
The intellectual and spiritual side of Nationalism was voiced by persons like  bankim Chandra Chatterji, Swami Dayanand Saraswati and Aurobindo Ghosh. 

Bankim Chandra’s hymn to the Motherland, ‘Vande Matram’ became the rallying cry of
patriotic nationalists. It inspired generations to supreme self-sacrifice. Simultaneously,
it created a fear in the minds of the British. The impact was so strong that the British
had to ban the song. Similarly, Swami Vivekananda’s message to the people, “Arise,
awake and stop not till the goal is reached”, appealed to the Indians. It acted as
a potent force in the course of Indian Nationalism.

Do you also remember reading about the establishment of printing press and how
it helped in wide circulation of ideas like liberty, equality and fraternity? All these
factors helped in the spread of Nationalism among the people of India.

Around this time many organizations were being formed which raised their voices
against British rule. Most of these organizations were regional in nature. Some of
these organizations were very active such as Bengal Indian Association, Bengal
Presidency Association, Pune Public Meeting, etc. However it was felt that if these
regional organizations could work jointly it would help the Indian masses to raise
their voices against the British Rule. This led to the formation of Indian National
Congress in the year 1885.












Friday, 22 January 2016
























Indus Valley Civilisation important notes

The first notable civilization flourished in India around 2700 BC in the north western part of the Indian subcontinent. The civilization is referred to as the Harappan civilization. Most of the sites of this civilization developed on the banks of Indus, Ghaggar and its tributaries.

 • First known urban culture in India. Earliest cities complete with town planning, sanitation, drainage and broad well laid roads.

 • Double storied houses of burnt bricks(each one having bathroom, kitchen and well). Important buildings on walled cities Great Bath, Granaries and Assembly Halls.

• Agriculture main occupation Harrappans lived in rural areas.

 • Harrappans carried out external trade and developed contacts with other civilizations such ass Mesopotamia.

• Excellent potters, technical knowledge of metals, and process of alloying.

• Lothal a dockyard located in Dholaka Taluk of Ahemdabad in Gujrat. Important centre of sea trade in western world. Gujrat also had Dhaulavira while Kalibangam in Rajasthan.

 • Worshipped plants and animals and the forces of nature, testified by images of one-horned Rhino, peepal leaves and a male god.

• Language was known to them seals contains some form of script.

• Perhaps first people to cultivate cotton. Seals indicate a possible trade between the Indus valley and Mesopotamia civilisation.

Union government comes up with skill development scheme: 'Nai Manzil' launched for minority community girls

A skill development scheme has been launched by the union government for girls belonging to the minority communities in the country. The launch of the scheme 'Nai Manzil' was announced by the union minister Najma Heptulla on Thursday. Under this scheme, girls from the minority communities will be imparted a three-month skill development training in seven identified sectors relevant to the region concerned.
These include training in processing saffron and food, embroidery, computers (both software and hardware), tourism/hospitality, electronics and plumbing. Trainees will also be given a stipend of Rs 4,500 for the course. The skill development programme has been launched in three Madarsas for girls in Jammu and Kashmir. "We will provide the girls area-specific training, based on local requirements as part of the programme," Najma Heptulla told reporters here today.
The minister said girls from economically poor background will be trained at three institutions which include a development centre in Kashmir University and Madarsa Shahi-i-Hamdan in Pampore and Madarsa Imam Sadique in Shadipur in Bandipora. "We will also give them certificates from Sector Skill Councils," she said.
The scheme has been launched, for the first time in the state. Nai Manzil scheme is an integrated education and livelihood initiative for the minority communities. The scheme aims to benefit the minority youths who are school-dropouts or educated in the community education institutions like Madrasas, by providing them an integral input of formal education (up till Class 8 or 10) and skill training along with certification. This will enable them to seek better employment in the organised sector and equip them with better lives. The scheme covers the entire country.

200-million-year-old Jurassic dinosaur uncovered in U.K.

A new carnivorous dinosaur species uncovered in the Wales, dating back 200 million years, is possibly the oldest known Jurassic dinosaur from the United Kingdom, according to a new study.
Researchers analysed the dinosaur skull and bones, discovered in 2014 on a beach near Penarth, Wales, and concluded it is a new species that they have named Dracoraptor hanigani.
The dinosaur species was identified by David Martill from the University of Portsmouth, U.K., and colleagues from National Museum Wales and University of Manchester.

It was meat-eating
From their analysis, the researchers believe this dinosaur was meat-eating, from the theropod group.
They also suggested that it may have been a juvenile animal, as most of its bones were not yet fully formed or fused.
Compared to its distant relative the ‘T rex,’ it appears to be a small, agile animal, probably only about 70 cm tall and about 200 cm long, with a long tail, likely to help it balance.

Go back 201 million years
It lived at the beginning of the Jurassic Period (201 million years ago), at the time when south Wales was a coastal region like it is today.
However, at the time, the climate was much warmer, and dinosaurs were just starting to diversify.
The new specimen represents the most complete theropod from Wales, and may possibly represent one of the oldest known Jurassic dinosaurs in the U.K. or even in the world.

Now we know better
“The Triassic-Jurassic extinction event is often credited for the later success of dinosaurs through the Jurassic and Cretaceous, but previously we knew very little about dinosaurs at the start of this diversification and rise to dominance,” researchers said.
“Now we have Dracoraptor, a relatively complete two-metre-long juvenile theropod from the very earliest days of the Jurassic in Wales,” they said.

Rural India too battles hypertension

Higher stress levels in rural India and faulty diet in cities have thrown up two most disturbing health concerns in the National Family Health Survey (NFHS), the data for which was released on Wednesday. While obesity levels have shot up in the country since the last NFHS survey in 2005-06, the number of people suffering from hypertension in rural India is, in many cases, higher than in urban parts.
The NFHS on Wednesday released the data for 15 States and each State, with the exception of Puducherry, showed a sharp rise in obesity levels among both men and women.
In Andhra Pradesh, for instance, where over 10,000 households were surveyed, 45.6 per cent of the total women surveyed in urban areas were found to be overweight — the highest in the country. Obesity among rural women in AP was found to be 27.6 per cent, which may not appear alarming, but is still high compared to other rural parts.
Among women, obesity levels shot up from 13.92 per cent in 2005-06 to 19.56 per cent in 2015-16. For men, the rise from the last decade has been from 10.35 per cent to 18.04 per cent.
While rural Bihar recorded the fewest number of women suffering from obesity among the 15 States, but more women in rural parts here were found to have hypertension compared to urban parts of Bihar — a trend seen in other parts of the country as well. In Andaman and Nicobar, more men and women in rural parts were found to be suffering from hypertension than in urban centres. This trend was found in Meghalaya too.
As for blood sugar levels, most States have maintained the traditional difference between urban and rural areas, with urban centres recording more cases of high blood sugar. The few exceptions have been recorded in Goa where the number of women in rural areas with high blood sugar was more than in urban Goa. The same trend was mapped in Puducherry. In Tripura and also in Haryana, more men in rural areas had high blood sugar than men in urban parts.
Health experts said the overall obesity in urban India and rising hypertension in rural India was indicative of the faulty diet of people and also of the stress levels of women in rural India.
“High stress levels in rural areas are rooted in income, agriculture and high cost of healthcare. Also on the food front, there is lack of potassium-rich food like fruits and vegetables,” said health expert Veena Shatrugna, former deputy director of the National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad.

Thursday, 21 January 2016


A more direct activist role of the state in bringing forth socio-economic transformation was
assigned by the Constitution of India through Directive Principles of State Policy. These
principles are not directly enforceable by the law courts. But the courts, while interpreting the Constitution, including the Fundamental Rights, are to be guided by them. The Constitution enjoins the state to regard them as fundamental in governance and to apply them when making laws.

Common Good and Life of Dignity
The most fundamental directive to the state is to strive to secure a social order in which justice,social, economic and political shall inform all the institutions of their national life. The state shall, in particular, strive to minimise inequalities in income and eliminate inequalities of status,facilities and opportunities not only among the individuals but also among groups of people residing in different areas or engaged in different vocations (Article 38). In particular the state shall direct its policies toward securing adequate means of livelihood for all citizens, men and women equally, distribution of ownership and control to best serve the common good, preventing concentration of wealth and means of production to the common detriment, ensuring equal pay for equal work for both men and women, protection of the health and strength of the workers,men and women, prevention of the abuse of the children, and facilitation of the children to grow in a healthy manner and with freedom and dignity (Article 39).

In the Sphere of Law
Most other Articles in this part of the Constitution (Part IV) are elaborations of these basic
objectives. The state shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice, on
a basis of equal opportunity, and shall, in particular, provide free legal aid, by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way, to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic and other disabilities (Article 39A, added in 1977 by the 42nd amendment to the Constitution). The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India (Article 44). The state shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the state (Article 50).

The state shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers
and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self-government
(Article 40).

In the Economic Sphere
There is a more guarded promise in the economic sphere. The state shall, within the limits of its economic capacity and development, make effective provision for securing the right to
work, to education and to public assistance in case of unemployment, old age, sickness and
disablement, and in other cases of undeserved want (Article 41). The right to work as such
cannot be granted by any liberal democratic state simply because it does not control all the
means of production. The system of social insurance is also provided by only developed
industrial countries though its operation is unstable. For a developing country like India the
promise of universal right to work and/or social insurance is obviously too ambitious.
The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of the
people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and, in particular,
endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of
intoxicating and harmful drugs (Article 47).

Rights of Workers
The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for
maternity relief. The state shall endeavour to secure, by suitable legislation or economic
organisation or in any other way, to all workers, industrial, agricultural or otherwise, a living
wage, conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and
social and cultural opportunities and, in particular, the state shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or co-operative basis in rural areas (Article 43). By the 42nd Amendment to the Constitution, the State was enjoined to take steps, by suitable legislation or any other way, to secure the participation or workers in the management of undertakings,establishments of other organisations engaged in any industry (Article 43A)

 For Children and the Weaker Sections
The state is directed to provide, within a period of ten years (from the proclamation of the
Constitution) to all children up to the age of fourteen years (Article 45).
The state shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people, and, in particular, of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes, and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation (Article 46).

In the Sphere of Agriculture and Environment
The state shall endeavour to develop agriculture and industry along modern scientific lines
(Article 48).

It is the obligation of the state to protect every monument or place or object of historic interest declared by the Parliament to be of national importance from spoilation, disfigurement, destruction, removal, disposal or export, as the case may be (Article 49).
Article 48A, incorporated by the 42nd amendment in 1977 enjoins the duty to protect and
improve the environment and safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country.


Longitude is the measurement east or west of the prime meridian. Longitude is measured by imaginary lines that run around the Earth vertically (up and down) and meet at the North and South Poles. These lines are known as meridians. Each meridian measures one arc degree of longitude. The distance around the Earth measures 360 degrees.

The meridian that runs through Greenwich, England, is internationally accepted as the line of 0 degrees longitude, or prime meridian. The 
anti meridian is halfway around the world, at 180 degrees. It is the basis for the International Date Line.

Half of the world, the Eastern Hemisphere, is measured in degrees east of the prime meridian. The other half, the Western Hemisphere, in degrees west of the prime meridian.

Degrees of longitude are divided into 60 minutes. Each minute of longitude can be further divided into 60 seconds. For example, the longitude of India, is 78.87 18° E
(78.87, 18 minutes east) and latitude is 21.76 79° N(21.76 degrees,79minutes North)

A degree of longitude is about 111 kilometers (69 miles) at its widest. The widest areas of longitude are near the
Equator, where the Earth bulges out. Because of the Earth's curvature, the actual distance of a degrees, minutes, and seconds of longitude depends on its distance from the Equator. The greater the distance, the shorter the length between meridians. All meridians meet at the North and South Poles.

Longitude is related to 
latitude, the measurement of distance north or south of the Equator. Lines of latitude are called parallels. Maps are often marked with parallels and meridians, creating a grid. The point in the grid where parallels and meridians intersect is called a coordinate.Coordinates can be used to locate any point on Earth.

Knowing the exact coordinates of a site (degrees, minutes, and seconds of longitude and latitude) is valuable for
military, engineering, and rescue operations. Coordinates can give military leaders the location of weapons or enemy troops. Coordinates help engineers plan the best spot for a building, bridge, well, or other structure. Coordinates help airplane pilots land planes or drop aid packages in specific locations.

Latitude is the measurement of distance north or south of the Equator. It is measured with 180 imaginary lines that form circles around the Earth east-west, parallel to the Equator. These lines are known as parallels. A circle of latitude is an imaginary ring linking all points sharing a parallel.

The Equator is the line of 0 degrees latitude. Each parallel measures one degree north or south of the Equator, with 90 degrees north of the Equator and 90 degrees south of the Equator. The latitude of the North Pole is 90 degrees N, and the latitude of the South Pole is 90 degrees S. 

Like the poles, some circles of latitude are named. The Tropic of Cancer, for instance, is 23 degrees 26 minutes 21 seconds N—23° 26' 21'' N. Its twin, the Tropic of Capricorn, is 23° 26' 21'' S. The tropics are important geographic locations that mark the northernmost and southernmost latitudes where the sun can be seen directly overhead during a 

One degree of latitude, called an 
arcdegree, covers about 111 kilometers (69 miles). Because of the Earth'scurvature, the farther the circles are from the Equator, the smaller they are. At the North and South Poles, arcdegrees are simply points.

Degrees of latitude are divided into 60 minutes. To be even more precise, those minutes are divided into 60 seconds. One minute of latitude covers about 1.8 kilometers (1.1 miles) and one second of latitude covers about 32 meters (105 feet).

For example, the latitude for Cairo, Egypt, in degrees and minutes would be written as 29° 52' N, because the city is 29 degrees, 52 minutes north of the Equator. The latitude for Cape Town, South Africa, would be 33° 56' S, because the city is 33 degrees, 56 minutes south of the Equator. Using seconds of latitude, 
global positioning system (GPS)devices can pinpoint schools, houses, even rooms in either of these towns.

Similar to latitude, the corresponding measurement of distance around the Earth is called 
longitude. The imaginary lines of latitude and longitude intersect each other, forming a grid that covers the Earth. The points of latitude and longitude are called coordinates, and can be used together to locate any point on Earth.


Earth is the only planet in the solar system with an atmosphere that can sustain life. The blanket of gases not only contains the air that we breathe but also protects us from the blasts of heat and radiation emanating from the sun. It warms the planet by day and cools it at night.

Earth's atmosphere is about 300 miles (480 kilometers) thick, but most of it is within 10 miles (16 km) the surface. Air pressure decreases with altitude. At sea level, air pressure is about 14.7 pounds per square inch (1 kilogram per square centimeter). At 10,000 feet (3 km), the air pressure is 10 pounds per square inch (0.7 kg per square cm). There is also less oxygen to breathe.

Water vapour
0.4% (around 1% at the surface)
Carbon dioxide

Atmosphere layers
Earth's atmosphere is divided into five main layers, the exosphere, the thermosphere, the mesosphere, the stratosphere and the troposphere. The atmosphere thins out in each higher layer until the gases dissipate in space. There is no distinct boundary between the atmosphere and space, but an imaginary line about 68 miles (110 kilometers) from the surface, called the Karman line, is usually where scientists say atmosphere meets outer space.

The troposphere is the layer closest to Earth's surface. It is 4 to 12 miles (7 to 20 km) thick and contains half of Earth's atmosphere. Air is warmer near the ground and gets colder higher up. Nearly all of the water vapor and dust in the atmosphere are in this layer and that is why clouds are found here.

The stratosphere is the second layer. It starts above the troposphere and ends about 31 miles (50 km) above ground. Ozone is abundant here and it heats the atmosphere while also absorbing harmful radiation from the sun. The air here is very dry, and it is about a thousand times thinner here than it is at sea level. Because of that, this is where jet aircraft and weather balloons fly.

The mesosphere starts at 31 miles (50 km) and extends to 53 miles (85 km) high. The top of the mesosphere, called the mesopause, is the coldest part of Earth's atmosphere with temperatures averaging about minus 130 degrees F (minus 90 C). This layer is hard to study. Jets and balloons don't go high enough, and satellites and space shuttles orbit too high. Scientists do know that meteors burn up in this layer.

The thermosphere extends from about 56 miles (90 km) to between 310 and 620 miles (500 and 1,000 km). Temperatures can get up to 2,700 degrees F (1,500 C) at this altitude. The thermosphere is considered part of Earth's atmosphere, but air density is so low that most of this layer is what is normally thought of as outer space. In fact, this is where the space shuttlesflew and where the International Space Station orbits Earth. This is also the layer where the auroras occur. Charged particles from space collide with atoms and molecules in the thermosphere, exciting them into higher states of energy. The atoms shed this excess energy by emitting photons of light, which we see as the colorful Aurora Borealis and Aurora Australis.

The exosphere, the highest layer, is extremely thin and is where the atmosphere merges into outer space. It is composed of very widely dispersed particles of hydrogen and helium.

Climate and weather
Earth is able to support a wide variety of living beings because of its diverse regional climates, which range from extreme cold at the poles to tropical heat at the Equator. Regional climate is often described as the average weather in a place over more than 30 years. A region's climate is often described, for example, as sunny, windy, dry, or humid. These can also describe the weather in a certain place, but while the weather can change in just a few hours, climate changes over a longer span of time.

Earth's global climate is an average of regional climates. The global climate has cooled and warmed throughout history. Today, we are seeing unusually rapid warming. The scientific consensus is that greenhouse gases, which are increasing because of human activities, are trapping heat in the atmosphere.

Ozone layer
It is contained within the stratosphere at about 10 – 50 km above the Earth’s surface
About 90% of the ozone layer is present in the stratosphere
The ozone layer absorbs 93-99% of harmful ultraviolet light
Ozone is formed when UV light strikes oxygen in the stratosphere to split the oxygen atoms, which then reform as ozone
The ozone layer was discovered by the French physicists Charles Fabry and Henri Buisson in 1913
British meteorologist GMB Dobson established a worldwide network of ozone monitoring stations between 1928 and 1958 that continues to operate today. He also developed a spectrophotometer (called the Dobsonmeter) to measure stratospheric oxygen from the ground. The Dobson unit, a measure of ozone density is named in his honour

Stretches from the thermosphere to the exosphere (100 km – 700 km)
This is caused due to ionization by solar UV radiation
Responsible for radio propagation by reflecting radio waves back to the Earth’s surface thereby enabling long-distance communication
Plays an important part in atmospheric electricity (like lightning)
Responsible for auroras

Homosphere and Heterosphere
Homosphere is the part of the atmosphere where gases are well mixed due to turbulence
This includes the troposphere, stratosphere and mesosphere
Heterosphere is the part of the atmosphere where gases are not well mixed
This usually happens above the turbopause (100 km) where distance between particles is large due to low density
This causes the atmosphere to stratify with heavier gases like oxygen and nitrogen present in the lower layers and lighter gases like hydrogen and helium in the upper layers

Planetary boundary layer
Part of the troposphere closest to the Earth’s surface and most influenced by it
Friction with the earth’s surface causes turbulent diffusion
Ranges from 100 m to about 2 km

A mix of free ions and electrons from solar wind and the Earth’s atmosphere
It is non-spherical and extends to more than 70,000 km
It protects the Earth from harmful solar winds
Mars is thought to have lost most of its former oceans and atmosphere to space due to the direct impact of solar winds. Similarly Venus is thought to have lost its water due to solar winds as well

Karman line
Defines the boundary between the Earth’s atmosphere and outer space
Lies at an altitude of 100 km above mean sea level
At this altitude the atmosphere becomes too thin for aeronautical purposes
However, there is no legal demarcation between a country’s air space and outer space

Van Allen Belt
It is a region of energetic charged particles (plasma) around the Earth held in place by the Earth’s magnetic field
Extends from about 200 km to 1000 km
Has important implications for space travel because it causes radiation damage to solar cells, integrated circuits, sensors and other electronics


Pressure and thickness
Atmospheric pressure at sea level is 1 atmosphere (around 14.7 psi)
50% of atmospheric mass is below an altitude of 5.6 km
90% of atmospheric mass is below 16 km
99.99% of atmospheric mass is below 100 km
Density and mass
Atmospheric density decreases with height
Density at sea level is about 1.2 kg/cu.m


When sun’s rays pass through the atmosphere, photons in light interact with the atmosphere to produce scattering
Eg: on overcast days there are no shadows because light reaching the surface is only scattered, indirect radiation, with no direct radiation reaching the earth
Scattering is responsible for blue appearance of the sky, and for red appearance of sunset

The atmosphere absorbs radiation of different wavelengths, allowing only certain ranges (UV to IR) to pass on to the earth’s surface

The atmosphere absorbs and emits IR radiation
Earth cools down faster on clear nights than on cloudy nights because clouds absorb IR radiation from the Sun during the day and emit IR radiation towards the Earth at night
Greenhouse effect is directly related to emission, where certain greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide) prevent IR radiation from the earth’s surface to exit back to space

99.9% of water vapour is contained in the troposphere
Condensation of water vapour into liquid or ice is responsible for rain, snow etc
The latent heat released during condensation is responsible for cyclones and thunderstorms
Water vapour is also a potent greenhouse gas
Water vapour is most common gas in volcanic emissions (around 60%)

It is an important greenhouse gas
Natural sources of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere include volcanic activity, combustion of organic matter, respiration, decay of forests etc
Current carbon dioxide levels (0.0384%) are around 35% higher than the levels in 1832
The concentration of carbon dioxide is higher in the northern hemisphere because it has greater land mass and plant mass than the southern hemisphere

Carbon dioxide concentrations peak in May (just after the end of winter in the Northern Hemisphere) and reach a minimum in October (at the end of summer in Northern Hemisphere, when the quantity of plants undergoing photosynthesis is greatest)