Saturday, 28 November 2015


The theory of plate tectonics has done for geology what Charles Darwin's theory of evolution did for biology. It provides geology with a comprehensive theory that explains "how the Earth works." The theory was formulated in the 1960s and 1970s as new information was obtained about the nature of the ocean floor, Earth's ancient magnetism, the distribution of volcanoes and earthquakes, the flow of heat from Earth's interior, and the worldwide distribution of plant and animal fossils.

The theory states that Earth's outermost layer, the lithosphere, is broken into 7 large, rigid pieces called plates: the African, North American, South American, Eurasian, Australian, Antarctic, and Pacific plates. Several minor plates also exist, including the Arabian, Nazca, and Philippines plates.
The plates are all moving in different directions and at different speeds (from 2 cm to 10 cm per year--about the speed at which your fingernails grow) in relationship to each other. The plates are moving around like cars in a demolition derby, which means they sometimes crash together, pull apart, or sideswipe each other. The place where the two plates meet is called a plate boundary. Boundaries have different names depending on how the two plates are moving in relationship to each other

crashing: Convergent Boundaries,
pulling apart: Divergent Boundaries,
or sideswiping: Transform Boundaries

With respect to plate boundaries is your home located in the middle of, or near the boundary of a plate? What does this mean for you tectonically?


In plate tectonics, a convergent boundary, also known as a destructive plate boundary (because of subduction), is an actively deforming region where two (or more) tectonic plates or fragments of the lithosphere move toward one another and collide. As a result of pressure, friction, and plate material melting in the mantle,earthquakes and volcanoes are common near convergent boundaries. When two plates move towards one another, they form either a subduction zone or acontinental collision. This depends on the nature of the plates involved. In a subduction zone, the subducting plate, which is normally a plate with oceanic crust, moves beneath the other plate, which can be made of either oceanic or continental crust.

The edge of the continental plate in the drawing has folded into a huge mountain range, while the edge of the oceanic plate has bent downward and dug deep into the Earth. A trench has formed at the bend. All that folding and bending makes rock in both plates break and slip, causing earthquakes. As the edge of the oceanic plate digs into Earth's hot interior, some of the rock in it melts. The melted rock rises up through the continental plate, causing more earthquakes on its way up, and forming volcanic eruptions where it finally reaches the surface. An example of this type of collision is found on the west coast of South America where the oceanic Nazca Plate is crashing into the continent of South America. The crash formed the Andes Mountains, the long string of volcanoes along the mountain crest, and the deep trench off the coast in the Pacific Ocean. The Himalayas in India are the result of two continental plates (the Indo-Australian and Eurasian plates) colliding head on.

Mountains, earthquakes, and volcanoes form where plates collide. Millions of people live in and visit the beautiful mountain ranges being built by plate collisions. For example, the Rockies in North America, the Alps in Europe, the Pontic Mountains in Turkey, the Zagros Mountains in Iran, and the Himalayas in central Asia were formed by plate collisions. Each year, thousands of people are killed by earthquakes and volcanic eruptions in those mountains. Occasionally, big eruptions or earthquakes kill large numbers of people. In 1883 an eruption of Krakatau volcano in Indonesia killed 37,000 people. In 1983 an eruption-caused mudslide on Nevada del Ruiz in Columbia killed 25,000 people. In 1976, an earthquake in Tangshan, China killed an astounding 750,000 people.

On the other hand, earthquakes and volcanoes occurring in areas where few people live harm no one. If we choose to live near convergent plate boundaries, we can build buildings that can resist earthquakes, and we can evacuate areas around volcanoes when they threaten to erupt. Yes, convergent boundaries are dangerous places to live, but with preparation and watchfulness, the danger can be lessened somewhat.


A divergent boundary is when the earths brittle surface layer (the lithosphere) is being pulled apart. It typically breaks along parallel faults that tilt slightly outward from each other.  As the plates separate along the boundary, the block between the faults cracks and drops down into the soft, plastic interior (the asthenosphere). The sinking of the block forms a central valley called a rift. Magma (liquid rock) seeps upward to fill the cracks. In this way, new crust is formed along the boundary. Earthquakes occur along the faults, and volcanoes form where the magma reaches the surface. Places where plates are coming apart are called divergent boundaries. When a divergent boundary crosses land the rift valley which forms. Why does the magma have to fill up the cracks in the lithosphere? It fills the cracks in the lithosphere because it sinks into the lithosphere and forms a new crust. Is it a dangerous place to live on? Yes, because if you would live there it would be dangerous, caused by the magma that flows up and the plates split apart.

Where a divergent boundary crosses the land, the rift valleys which form are typically 30 to 50 kilometers wide. Examples include the East Africa rift in Kenya and Ethiopia, and the Rio Grande rift in New Mexico. Where a divergent boundary crosses the ocean floor, the rift valley is much narrower, only a kilometer or less across, and it runs along the top of a midoceanic ridge. Oceanic ridges rise a kilometer or so above the ocean floor and form a global network tens of thousands of miles long. Examples include the Mid-Atlantic ridge and the East Pacific Rise.

Plate separation is a slow process. For example, divergence along the Mid Atlantic ridge causes the Atlantic Ocean to widen at only about 2 centimeters per year.


Transform boundaries are places where plates slide horizontally past each other moving in opposite directions. The result of two plates pushing against one another is massive amounts of energy built up. Occasionally this built up energy is released suddenly in the form of large earthquakes.

 Perhaps the most famous transform boundary in the world is the San Andreas fault.  The San Andreas fault zone is about 1,300 kilometers long and slices through two thirds of California at an average rate of about 5 centimeters per year


There is more to the Earth than what we can see on the surface. In fact, if you were able to hold the Earth in your hand and slice it in half, you’d see that it has multiple layers. But of course, the interior of our world continues to hold some mysteries for us.
However, advances in seismology have allowed us to learn a great deal about the Earth and the many layers that make it up. Each layer has its own properties, make-up, and characteristics that affects many of the key processes of our planet. They are, in order from the exterior to the interior – the crust, the mantle, the outer core, and the inner core.

The Earth can be divided into one of two ways – mechanically or chemically. Mechanically – or rheologically, meaning the study of liquid states – it can be divided into lithosphere, asthenosphere, mesospheric mantle, outer core, and the inner core. But chemically, which is the more popular of the two, into the crust, upper mantle, lower mantle, outer core, and inner core.
History of Study:

Since ancient times, human beings have sought to understand the formation and composition of the Earth.The earliest known cases were unscientific in nature – taking the form of creation myths or religious fables involving the gods. However, between classical antiquity and the medieval period, several theories emerged about the origin of the Earth, its true shape, and its place in the cosmos.

Most of these tended towards the “Flat-Earth” view of our planet’s physical form. This was the view in the Mesopotamian culture, where the world was portrayed as a flat disk afloat in an ocean. To the Mayans, the world was flat, and at it corners, four jaguars (known as bacabs) held up the sky. The ancient Persians speculated that the Earth was a seven-layered ziggurat (or cosmic mountain), while the Chinese viewed it as a four-side cube.
By the 6th century BCE, Greek philosophers began to speculate that the Earth was in fact round, and by the 3rd century BCE, the idea of a spherical Earth began to become articulated as a scientific matter
However, it was not until the 16th and 17th centuries that a scientific understanding of planet Earth and its structure truly began to advance. In 1692, Edmond Halley (discoverer of Halley’s Comet) proposed what is now known as the “Hollow-Earth” theory.

Halley’s construct was a method of accounting for the values of the relative density of Earth and the Moon that had been given by Sir Isaac Newton, in his PhilosophiƦ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687) – which were later shown to be inaccurate.

The layering of Earth has been inferred indirectly using the time of travel of refracted and reflected seismic waves created by earthquakes. The core does not allow shear waves to pass through it, while the speed of travel (seismic velocity) is different in other layers. The changes in seismic velocity between different layers causes refraction owing to Snell’s law, like light bending as it passes through a prism. Likewise, reflections are caused by a large increase in seismic velocity and are similar to light reflecting from a mirror.

The crust is the first layer of the earth. It is split up into two parts the continental crust, and the oceanic crust. The oceanic crust takes up 71% of the earths crust, and the other 29% of the crust is continental. The continental is made up of igneous rocks, and the oceanic crust is made up of sedimentary and basalt rocks.

Earth's crust is made up of several elements: oxygen, 47 percent; silicon, 27 percent; aluminum, 8 percent; iron, 5 percent; calcium, 4 percent; magnesium, potassium and sodium, 2 percent

The continental crust is older than the oceanic crust, some of the rocks are 3.9 billion years old. The density average of the oceanic crust is 3g/cm. The average density of the continental earth is 2.7g/cm. The temperature of the crust is around 200-400 degrees celsius. The crust is about 60 km thick under a continent and 5 km thick under the ocean. The crust is constantly moving  they move at about the same rate as fingernails grow. The crust is the layer where tectonic plates can be found.


The mantle is the second layer of the earth. It is split up into two different parts, the lithosphere (which is the top part) and the asthenosphere (which is the bottom part). 

The lithosphere is a dense rock made out of iron and nickel, the asthenosphere is a plastic like fluid. The temperature of the lithosphere is around 300 to 500 degrees celsius, and the asthenosphere is around 4500 degrees celsius. 

The mantle has the biggest volume of all the layers, the volume of it is 84% of the earth. It is 1,800 miles deep or 2,900 kilometers deep. In the mantle are convection currents which make the mantle move. The lower mantle heats up and rises and cools down then gets pushed down because it is heavier. The mantle grows a meter a year.


The lithosphere is the top layer of the mantle. The lithosphere includes having the crust in it. It is a cooler layer because it is farther from the inner core. The lithosphere is a dense rock made out of iron and nickel. 

The temperature of the lithosphere is 300-500 degrees celsius. Inside the lithosphere and asthenosphere are currents, called convection currents. They make the lithosphere and asthenosphere turn round and round. So because the lithosphere is denser it is being forced down closer to the core and then heats up then forces its way back up to the top because it is less dense.


The asthenosphere is the bottom layer of the mantle. It is a plastic like liquid made up of iron and nickel. The temperature of the asthenospere is 4500 degrees celsius. It is hotter than the lithosphere because it is closer to the inner core. 

Inside the asthenosphere and lithosphere are currents, they are called convection currents. So because the asthenosphere is less dense or lighter than the lithosphere is forces its way up to the top and foces the lithosphere down. It then cools down then gets forced back down by a hotter substance


Convection Currents happen in the Mantle. They go through bot the lithosphere and the asthenosphere. They make them move round and round. Since the asthenosphere is hotter, that makes it lighter or less dense, so it forces its way to the top. 

Meanwhile it is forcing the lithosphere to go down and take it's place, So the asthenosphere that moved up and cooled down, and the lithosphere that got forced down is heating up and then when it gets hot ebough it will force its way to the top and the whole cycle will start again. But these convection currents effect the earth and the tectonic plates. 

Because when the plates, say...... overlap one gets pushed under the other, and it would get pushed don to the convection currents, and because it is a dense material it would be forced down and it would melt and make a new crust. In the photo below that diagram would acctually be going on inside of the earth at this very moment!


The outer core is a liquid made up of iron and nickel. The temperature of the outer core is around 4400 degrees celsius. 

The depth of the outer core is 2, 890. This is one of the three layers that is putting pressure on the inner core. It is the second hottest layer, because it is the layer above the inner core, and it is the second farthest from the surface of the earth. Also it is said that the core is rotating faster than the rest of the earth but...... slower than previously believed! the outer core was discovered in 1936 by seismologist, Inge Lehmann.


The Inner crust is the second thinnest layer. The inner core is hotter than the surface of the sun. The inner core is made out of iron and nickel. 

It is 5159 to 6378 km thick. The inner core is extremely hot and is the last layer. The inner core is 5505 degrees celsius. It is a solid because of all the pressure from the other layers putting there weight onto this layer. The inner core grows. The core was discovered in 1971..

Friday, 27 November 2015



Earth’s crust is made of rock, and rock is made of natural substances called MINERALS. There are three main types of rock—sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rock. Each type is produced in different ways. The oldest rocks on Earth were formed about 3.8 billion years ago.


The rocks that form Earth’s crust are continually destroyed and remade in an endless process called the rock cycle. Rock is formed by melting; by cooling and solidifying; by changing through heat and pressure; by weathering and erosion; and by compression and cementation.

The Rock Cycle is a group of changes. Igneous rock can change into sedimentary rock or into metamorphic rock. Sedimentary rock can change into metamorphic rock or into igneous rock. Metamorphic rock can change into igneous or sedimentary rock.
Igneous rock forms when magma cools and makes crystals. Magma is a hot liquid made of melted minerals. The minerals can form crystals when they cool. Igneous rock can form underground, where the magma cools slowly. Or, igneous rock can form above ground, where the magma cools quickly.

When it pours out on Earth's surface, magma is called lava. Yes, the same liquid rock matter that you see coming out of volcanoes.

On Earth's surface, wind and water can break rock into pieces. They can also carry rock pieces to another place. Usually, the rock pieces, called sediments, drop from the wind or water to make a layer. The layer can be buried under other layers of sediments. After a long time the sediments can be cemented together to make sedimentary rock. In this way, igneous rock can become sedimentary rock.

All rock can be heated. But where does the heat come from? Inside Earth there is heat from pressure (push your hands together very hard and feel the heat). There is heat from friction (rub your hands together and feel the heat). There is also heat from radioactive decay (the process that gives us nuclear power plants that make electricity).

So, what does the heat do to the rock? It bakes the rock.
Baked rock does not melt, but it does change. It forms crystals. If it has crystals already, it forms larger crystals. Because this rock changes, it is called metamorphic. Remember that a caterpillar changes to become a butterfly. That change is called metamorphosis. Metamorphosis can occur in rock when they are heated to 300 to 700 degrees Celsius.
When Earth's tectonic plates move around, they produce heat. When they collide, they build mountains and metamorphose (met-ah-MORE-foes) the rock.

The rock cycle continues. Mountains made of metamorphic rocks can be broken up and washed away by streams. New sediments from these mountains can make new sedimentary rock.
The rock cycle never stops.


Igneous rocks form when magma (molten rock) rises from deep underground and cools and solidifies at or near Earth’s surface. Igneous rock that forms under the ground may later reach the surface because of geological upheaval. It may also be exposed as the rocks above are worn away.

Igneous or volcanic rock includes granite and basalt.


Sedimentary rocks are made of fine rock particles that have been worn away and then carried by rivers, glaciers, or the wind and collect in lakes and oceans. The tiny fragments are then compressed (squashed) and cemented together to form sedimentary rock in a process called lithification.

This rock includes sandstone, limestone, and chalk.


Metamorphic rocks are formed when existing rocks are changed underground by great heat or pressure, or both. When volcanoes erupt and when mountains are formed by the movement of Earth’s tectonic plates, rocks are heated and squeezed. The minerals in the rocks are then changed, forming metamorphic rocks. 

Metamorphic rock includes marble, slate, and schist.


 list of bills pending in Parliament and their status 
The GST Bill
The passing of The Constitution (122nd Amendment) (GST) Bill, 2014 is the most important business of this sesstion. This bill seeks to reduce the multiplicity of taxes and make India a single market by subsuming various taxes. It will give concurrent taxing powers to both the Centre and states. Chances are this bill will be passed as the Bihar debacle has forced the govenrment to relent to the Opposition demands for discussion of various issues, including the rising intolerance.

The Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Bill, 2013
Another important and much awaited bill. It regulates transactions between buyers and promoters of real estate projects and sets up state level regulatory authorities for the sector. The Standing Committee report was submitted on 13 February 2014 and the Rajya Sabha Select Committee report on 30 July 2015.

The Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Amendment Bill, 2014
This bill amends certain existing categories of offences and adds new offences against SCs and STs, and establishes exclusive special courts to try offences under the Act. The Standing Committee Report was submitted on 19 Dec 2014. Th bill has been passed by the Lok Sabha and is pending in Rajya Sabha.

The Prevention of Corruption (Amendment) Bill, 2013
This bill makes the giving of a bribe an offence for individuals and commercial organisations, and enlarges the definition of taking a bribe. The Standing Committee report was submitted on 6 February 2014. According to thisEconomic Times report, the bill will also be a relief to corporate chiefs as they will be liable only if the offence "is proved to have been committed with consent or connivance" of the executive in question.

The Whistle Blowers Protection (Amendment) Bill, 2015
The bill specifies grounds under which public interest disclosures may not be made. The bill is passed by the Lok Sabha and is pending before the Rajya Sabha. The amendments to the bill will incorporate necessary provisions aimed at strengthening safeguards against disclosures which may prejudicially affect the sovereignty and integrity of the country and security of the state, among other things.

The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Amendment Bill, 2015
This permits juveniles between the ages of 16-18 years to be tried as adults for heinous offences and provides for institutional care for children in need of protection and care. The Standing Committee report was submitted on 25 Feb 2015. The bill is passed by the Lok Sabha and is pending in the Rajya Sabha.

The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Amendment Bill, 2012
It prohibits the employment of children below 14 years and of adolescents between 14 -18 years in certain hazardous occupations. The Standing Committee report was submitted on 13 December 2013.

The Anti-Hijacking Bill
This bill repeals the Anti-Hijacking Act, 1982, defines hijacking and awards death penalty for hijacking in certain cases. The Standing Committee report was submitted on 11 March 2015.

The Negotiable Instruments (Amendment) Bill, 2015
This will replace the Negotiable Instruments (Amendment) Ordinance. It specifies the territorial jurisdiction of courts for filing cases of cheque bouncing. The bill has been passed by Lok Sabha and is pending in Rajya Sabha.
The Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Bill, 2015
This replaces the Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Ordinance. It is aimed at making the process of arbitration simpler and ensure timely disposal of cases. This has to be introduced.
The Commercial Courts, Commercial Division and Commercial Appellate Division of High Courts Bill, 2015
This will replace the Commercial Courts, Commercial Division and Commercial Appellate Division of High Courts Ordinance. It enables the creation of commercial divisions and commercial appellate divisions in high courts, and commercial courts at the district level. The Bill was referred to standing committee, which was grangted time until 30 November.
The High Court and the Supreme Court Judges (Salaries and Conditions of Service) Amendment Bill 2015
This seeks to ensure uniformity in pensions and other conditions of service of supreme court and high court judges. It has not been referred to a Standing Committee.

Thursday, 26 November 2015































>>Who is appointed as an adhoc judge of the Supreme Court ?c
(a)A person fully qualified for appointment as a Judge of the Supreme Court
(b)A sitting judge of a High Court duly qualified for appointment as a SupremeCourt Judge
(c)A retired judge of Supreme Court
(d)An acting judge of the Supreme Court

>>The Right to Public Office" is a?2
1 Moral right
2 Civil right
3 Political right
4 Economic right

>>article 50 deals with separation of judiciary from executive.
>>article 60 deals with oath or affirmation by the President.

>>What are the constitutional provisions with respect to the prevention of prostitution ? 

Articles 23 and 24 of Part III of the Constitution provide to everyperson the Fundamental Right 
against exploitation.Article 23 prohibits the traffic in human beings and practice of forcedlabor.
Keeping in view the provisions of Article 23, the Governmentof India enacted the Suppression of 
immoral Traffic in Women and Girls Act, 1956.

>>Part XVII ???
deals with official languages.
>>Part XV ???

administration of sc,st and bc.part XV consists of art 330-342

>>the federal scheme, Office of the Governor, Role of federal judiciary,Emergency provisions in our Constition are taken from?2
1.Govt of India Act,1919
2.Govt of India Act,1935
3.UK Constitution

>>Part XVIII ?
deals with emergency provisions (article 352 to article 360)

>>>which of the following rights can be claimed only by the citizens of India?d
1)Freedom of speech
2)Right to form association
3)Equality before Law
4)Freedom to assemble peacefully without arms
select the correct answer from the code given below:

>>Dual Citizenship is allowed in which country/s? c

>>who was the first indian scientist to become the member of parliament?3
1-vikram sarabhai
3-meghnad saha
>>Under the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir, people enjoy theDUAL citizenship. 
It has a separate state constitution adopted by J & K Constituent Assembly( Jan 26,1957)

>>Freedom of Speech under the Indian Constitution is subject to reasonablerestriction on the ground of protection of -a
a)Sovereignty and Integrity of the country
b)The dignity of the office of the Prime Minister
c)The dignity of Council of Minister
d)The dignity of Constitutional functionaries

>>Which one of the following was described by Dr Ambedkar as the 'heart and soul'of the Constitution ?
a)Right to equality
b)Right against exploitation
c) Right to Constitutional Remedies
d) Right to Freedom of religion

Right to constitutional remedies... Article 32... Five type of writs can be used: Habeas Corpus, Mandamus, Prohibition, Quo-warranto and Certiorari

>>the salaries and allowances of all the higher posts that is president, primeminister, governor etc. 
of india has been described in which schedule ?b
a) first b) second c) sixth d) seventh

>>Which of the following categories of Fundamental Rights incorporate"Abolition of Untouchability' ?b
a) The Right to religion
b) The Right to equality
c) The Right against exploitation
d) The Right to Freedom

>>our constitution recieves amendibility from the article?c
a) 363 b) 365 c) 368 d) 370

>>we have adopted emergency provisions from which country?a
a) Germany b) Australia c) Britain d) Ireland

>>Fundamental Rights were taken from US bill of rights,
Parliamentry form of government from England,
President as head of executive and supreme commander of forces from US,
Emergency provisions from Germen Reich Constitution,
DPSP from Ireland 
The founding fathers of our constitution made itclear that they were not 
righting on clean slate as number of provisions were taken from different countries 
and almost 75%of constitution was regeneration of Government of India Act,1935

Q:Which rail zones has the maximum route kilometres?
Northern Railways-6968 kms
Western Railways-6182 kms
>>dispute relating to water of inter-state rivers or river valleys in the article?4

>>The pension of a high court judge is charged to the?a
A. Consolidated Fund of India
B. Consolidated Fund of the state where he last served
C. Consolidated Funds of the different states where he has served

>>What is the procedure for removal of CAG ?
He is removed similar like that of judges of Sc orHc

>>The power to decide an election petition is vested in the 
A. Parliament
B. Supreme Court
C. High courts
D. Election Commission

depends upon the kind of election:
if the election petition relates to elections to LS, RS, Legislativeassembly & council... then it is high courts
If it relates to president & VP election .. the only authority to decide on the petition is Supreme court

>>The power of Judicial Review has been confered on the SupremeCourt to check the arbitrary power of the?c
(a) Executive
(b) President
(d)Council of Minister

>>If the parliament passes a law which is against the Constitution, it can be declared as unconstitutional by the?c
(a) Chief Justice of India
(b) A bench of High Court Judges
(c)Supreme Court
SC as guardian of Constitution

>>The High Court dose not have the original jurisdiction in matters relating to?a
(a) Civil and Criminal cases decided by subordinate court
(b) Fundamental Rights
(c)State revenue and its collection
(d)Divorce and marriage
Ans is
>>Which of the following types of Judicial system dose India Posssess ?d
(a)Double judicial set up
(b)Single Court set up
(c)Federal Judicial system
(d)Single Judicial Hierarchy

>>Which of the following has the right to revise its earlier dicisions ?a
(a) Only Supreme Court
(b) None of these
(C)Only High Court
(d)Both the Supreme Court and High Court

only Supreme court has Revisory Jurisdiction, as mentioned in article 137. HCdoesnt posses any such type of jurisdiction .

>>The Parliament enjoys legislative power over subjects in?c 
A. the union list only
B. the concurrent list only
C. both union and concurrent list
D. all the three lists, viz. union list, state list and the concurrentlist

>>Who among the following is mainly concerned with the task of the assessment of the land revenue and property taxes ?(a) Commissioner(b) Collector

Naib Tehsildar(d)

(c)Tehsildar is the right ans
>>State shall preserve and improve the breeds and prohibit theslaughter of cows, calves and other cows and drought Articke number .......?
 Article 48 in constitution of india 1949
>>difference between Attorney General nd solicitor general
both are law officers.. attorney general is a constitutional postwhereas solicitor general is nt constitutional one.. sg assists the ag..AG is the highest law officer of nation.

Who among the following has the Constitutional authority to make rules regardingthe manner of enforcing for orders of the Supreme Court ?(a) Attorney General of Indiab)Union Law Minister


Chief Justice of India
 Art 142 states that the orders passed by the SC shall be madeenforceable in a manner prescribed by law passed by legislature.. butuntil such provision is made, the orders are to be enforceable by thepresidential order.So the answer is C! A civil case become a fit case for appeal to the Supreme Court if (a) It involves a point of Constitutional law(b) The case had come to the High Court under an appeal from asubordinate court

It involves a sum of money over Rs 10,000(d)

The High Court certifies that it involve a point of law and needsinterpretation of the constitution
The High Court certifies that it involve a point of law and needsinterpretation of the constitution
>>The first Law commission was set up in?a
(a) 1955
(b) 1947
(c) 1975
(d) 1965

>>The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court is appointed by the President?a
(a) In consulation with the Judges of the supreme court and the HighCourt
(b) Alone
(c)In consulation with the Governor
(d)In consulation with the Judges of the supreme court alone

Every Judge of the Supreme Court shall be appointed by the President by warrant 
under his hand and seal after consultation with such of the Judges of the
Supreme court and of the High Courts in the States as the President may deem necessary for the purpose.

>>The Law declared by the Supreme Court shall be binding on all courts
 within the territory of India in accordance with Article?c
(a) 130
(b) 136
(c) 141
(d) 124

>>The First Election Commissioner of India was?3
1 Dr.Nagendra Singh
2 S.P.Sen Verma
3 Sukumar Sen
4 K.V.K.Sundaram

>>By whom and on whose advice is the State Council of Ministers appointed
?By governor on advice of CM

>>Who treated as Soverign in in the constitution of India ?4
1.Prime Minister of India
2.President of India
3.Parliament of India
4.The People

>>In India,the Governor of the states are appointed by?4
1.The Prime Minister
2.The Parliament
3.The Chief Ministers
4.The President

>>Who was responsible for the superintendence,control and conduct of elections to parliament and State Legislature?3
1.The Central Government
2.The State Government
3.The Election Commission of India
4.The President of India 

>>Main Standing Committe of Lok Sabha are?4
1.Committe on Public Accounts
2.Estimates Committe
3.Committee on Public Undertaking
4.All the Above
all the above...time period for each one year...member here selected by pr and single transferable vote
...xcept others generally member of ruling party as chairman.

>>How many Fundamental Duties have been enumerated in theconstitution of India?

first it was10 then art. 51a(k) was added later on for rte(Right to Education) 11 i 86th amendment.?2

>>The Chairman of the Finance Commission must be
1 An Economist of high calibre
2 A person having experience in Public Affairs
3 An expert from Judiciary-level of High Court Judge
4 A person of Finance and Banking field

>>From which fund can the unanticipated expenditure be met without the prior approval of the Parliament?4
1 Vote-on-Account
2 Consolidated Fund of India
3 From the Treasury
4 Contingency Fund of India

>>Who is the Chief Law Officer of India?4
1 Advocate General
2 Solicitor General
3 Secretary, Law Department
4 Attorney General

 Attorney 76

>>Which of the following bills cannot be introduced first in the Rajya Sabha?2
1 Bill bringing a State under the President's rule
2 Money Bill
3 Bill pertaining to the removal of the President by impeachment
4 Bill proclaiming all the State of emergency arising out of war or external aggression.

>>Indian Constitution was Inaugurated on?2
1.Jan 26,1947
2.Jan 26,1949
3.Jan 26,1950
4.Jan 27,1949

>>>article-21A is..?

Article 21 A: Right to Education The State shall provide free and compulsory 
education to all children of the age of 6 to 14 years in such manner as the State, 
by law, may determine.

>>The work of General Purpose Committe is to advise ?3
1.The president
2.The vice-president
3.The speaker
4.The Prime Minister

>>article 51A is.......?
To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, 
the national Flag and the National Anthem..

>>Full statehood was cofered to Arunachal Pradesh by the---------Amendment of the constitution?1

>>The Constitution of India provides a ?2
1.Presidential form Govt 
2.Parliamentry System 
3.Cabinet System of Government
4.Bicameral System of government

>>Mr.P.V.Narashima Rao is the--------- Prime Minister of India?4

>>Secularism means?c
(a) Suppression of all religions
(b) A system of politics
(c) Separation of religion from State
(d) Freedom of worship to minorities

dts d meaning of secularism in refernce of our constitution.

>>explain the term 'Plural Executive' ?

Plural executive is merit of parliamentary system of government.
Unlike US,where executive power is vestd insingle person (i.e prez) only,
in india it lies with the council of ministers or more specificaly with the cabinet,
thus it checksthe autocratic or despotic tendancies of executive....!

199 money bill(state legislature)
161 govrnr pardonin power.
200 assent of bills(state.L)
110 money bill(union.L)
112 N 202 Annual financial statement (for union n state resp)

>>Which of the following is not a basic feature of the Indian Constitution ?a
(a) Presidential Government
(b) Liberty
(c) Parliamentary Government
(d) Federal Government

answer shud b ours is parliamentry system of govt...
fedralism is dere in our constitution as it is said dat structure
 of constitution is fedral but its working is quasi fedral...

>>Which is not a function of the Constitution ?b
(a) It lays down the limits of governmental authority.
(b) It strengthens the hands of rulers to rule according to their discretion.
(c) It acts as a source of power and authority of the government.
(d) It minimizes confusion and conflict between various organs of government.

>>The part of the Constitution that reflects the mind and ideals of the farmers is?a
(a) Directive Principles
(b) Citizenship
(c) Fundamental Rights
(d) Preamble

>>The source of India's sovereignty lies in the?b
(a) People of India
(b) Preamble to the Constitution
(c) President of U.S.A.
(d) Prime Minister

Preamble to the Constitution

>>Separation of the Judiciary from the Executive is enjoined by?c
(a) Seventh Schedule
(b) Judicial decision
(c) Directive Principle
(d) Preamble

the answer is c)... art 50 (DPSP) calls for separation of judiciary fromexecutive

>>What is the Anti-Defection Law?
The Tenth Schedule — popularly known as the Anti-Defection Act —
was included in the Constitution in 1985 by the Rajiv Gandhi ministry 
and sets the provisions for disqualification of elected members on the 
grounds of defection to another political party.

The law was added via the 52nd Amendment Act, 1985, soon after the Rajiv government came to
power with a thumping majority in the wake of the assassination of
prime minister Indira Gandhi. TheCongress had won 401 seats in the Lok Sabha.

articles coverd 102 n 191.

>>the word Economic Justice is found in?d
(a) Preamble
(b) Preamble, Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles
(c) Preamble, Fundamental Rights
(d) Preamble, Directive Principles

>>The Indian Constitution is regarded as?b
(a) Parliamentary
(b) Federal in form and Unitary in spirit
(c) Federal
(d) Unitary

>>Which of the following does not conform to the Parliament system prevalent in India?a
(a) Plural Executive
(b) Collective Responsibility
(c) Separation of powers
(d) Muliparty system

Plural Executive
>>There is a Parliamentary system of government in India because?d
(a) The Lok Sabha is directly elected by the people
(b) The Rajya Sabha cannot be dissolved
(c) The Parliament can amend the Constituiton
(d) The Council of Ministers is responsible in the Lok Sabha
 Ans is d article 75.

>>At the time of enactment of the Constitution which one of the following ideals was not include in the Preamble ?d
(a) Equality
(b) Liberty
(c) Justice
(d) Socialist

ans is d
included in 42 amendment.

>>The concept of welfare state is included in which part of the Indian Constitution ?a
(a) Directive Principles of State Policy
(b) 4th Schedule of the Constitution
(c) The Preamble of the Constitution
(d) Fundamental Rights 

>>What does the term sovereignity Signify ?b
(a) Freedom from legal constraints
(b) Freedom from feudal rule
(c) Freedom from military rule
(d) Freedom from British rule

>>Which of the following features of the Constitution of India does not resemble the American Constitution ?b
(a) Fundamental Rights
(b) Parliamental form of Government
(c) Written Constitution
(d) Federal form of government

Parliamentary form of govt is the right answer as United statesfollow Presidential form of govt.

>>Which of the following is a feature of the Parliamentary form of Government ?d
(a) Legislature is responsible to Executive
(b) Executive is responsible to Legislature
(c) Executive is responsible to Judiciary
(d) Judiciary is responsible to Executive

>>In which of the following case/s the six rights guaranteed by article 19 can be suspended?c
1.      External Aggression.
2.      Internal Emergency.
3.      When Martial Law is in force.
A.    1 only.
B.     2 & 3 only.
C.     1 & 3 only.
D.    1, 2 & 3.
>>Which of the following rights is/are available to foreigners in India.?a
1.      Right to Education.
2.      Right to Information.
A.    1 only.
B.     2 only.
C.     Both.
D.    None.
>>Article 21 declares that ?c
No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law.”
The protection under article 21 is:
A.    Against arbitrary legislative action.
B.     Against arbitrary executive action.
C.     Both A & B.
D.    None.
>>Which of the following statement/s is/are correct:?a
1.      Right to Information is a fundamental right enshrined in article 19 (1) of the constitution.
2.      Supreme Court of India is not under the purview of RTI act.
A.    1 only.
B.     2 only.
C.     Both.
D.    None.
>>Article 32 confers the right to remedies for the enforcement of the FR of an aggrieved citizen. Consider the following statements w.r.t article 32?d
1.      Parliament can suspend this right during national emergency.
2.      Only SC shall have the power to issue writs for the enforcement of any of the FR.
Correct statement/s is/are:
A.    1 only.
B.     2 only.
C.     Both.
D.    None
>>Which of the following right/s is/are enshrined in Article 21 – “No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law.”?c
1.      Right to speedy trial.
2.      Right against delayed execution.
A.    1 only.
B.     2 only.
C.     Both.
D.    None
>>Which of the following writs can be issued against administrative authorities?b
A.    Prohibition, Certiorari & Mandamus.
B.     Certiorari & Mandamus.
C.     Prohibition & Mandamus.
D.    Prohibition & Certiorari.
>>The directive principles were made non – justiciable and legally non – enforceable because:?c
1.      The country did not possess sufficient financial resources to implement them.
2.      There was widespread backwardness in the country that could stand in the way of implementation.
A.    1 only.
B.     2 only.
C.     Both.
D.    None
>>Which of the following statement/s is/are correct.?b
1.      The directive principles are meant to establish Political Democracy.
2.      The directive principles are meant to establish Social Democracy.
3.      The directive principles are meant to establish Economic Democracy.
A.    1 only.
B.     2 & 3 only.
C.     1 & 3 only.
D.    1, 2 & 3.
>>Which of the following statement/s is/are correct.?c
1.      Fundamental Rights enjoy legal supremacy over Directive principles.
2.      The parliament can amend the Fundamental Rights for implementing the directive principles.
A.    1 only.
B.     2 only.
C.     Both.
D.    None.
>>Which of the following statement/s is/are correct regarding Constitutional Amendment bill.?b
1.      Prior permission of President is required before introducing the constitutional amendment bill in parliament.
2.      President must give his assent to the bill if duly passed by both houses.
A.    1 only.
B.     2 only.
C.     Both.
D.    None
>>The emoluments, allowances, privileges and so on of Governor can be altered by:?a
A.    A Constitutional Amendment Bill passed by simple majority of Parliament.
B.     A Constitutional Amendment Bill passed by special majority of Parliament.
C.     A Constitutional Amendment Bill passed by special majority of the Parliament and ratified by half of the state legislatures.
D.    By a normal legislative process that does not require Constitutional Amendment.
>>Which of the following is/are federal feature/s of our constitution.?d
1.      Supremacy of the Constitution.
2.      Rigid Constitution.
3.      Independent Judiciary.
A.    1 only.
B.     2 & 3 only.
C.     1 & 3 only.
D.    1, 2 & 3.
>>Which of the following statements are true about Centre – State relations.?a
1.      In respect to matters enumerated in the concurrent list, the executive power rests with the states.
2.      In respect to matters enumerated in the concurrent list, the legislative power rests with the centre.
A.    1 only.
B.     2 only.
C.     Both.
D.    None.
>>Which of the following statements are true about Centre – State relations.?c
1.      During the proclamation of emergency (Article 352) the center can give direction to a state on any matter.
2.      During the proclamation of emergency (Article 352) President can modify the constitutional distribution of revenues between the Centre & the states.
A.    1 only.
B.     2 only.
C.     Both.
D.    None.
>>Which of the following statements are correct.?c
1.      The chairman and members of state PSC are appointed by the Governor, but can be removed only by the President.
2.      The state Election Commissioner is appointed by the Governor but can be removed only by the President.
A.    1 only.
B.     2 only.
C.     Both.
D.    None.
>>Which of the following statement is correct with regard to Proclamation of Emergency.?d
A.    Resolution approving & disapproving the proclamation of emergency is to be passed by either house of parliament by a special majority.
B.     Resolution approving & disapproving the proclamation of emergency is to be passed by either house of parliament by a simple majority.
C.     Resolution disapproving the proclamation of emergency is to be passed by either house of parliament by a simple majority.
D.    None of these.
>>Which of the following situation/s will be proper to impose Presidents rule in a state (Article 356).?a
1.      Where after general elections to the assembly, no party secures a majority.
2.      Serious maladministration in the state.
3.      Stringent financial exigencies of the state.
A.    1 only.
B.     2 & 3 only.
C.     1 & 3 only.
D.    1, 2 & 3.
>>Which of the following situation/s are correct with regard to Proclamation of Financial Emergency (Article 360).?b
1.      It can be extended to an indefinite period with an approval of the parliament for every six months.
2.      A resolution approving the proclamation of financial emergency is to be passed by either house of parliament by simple majority.
3.      The President may issue directions for reduction of salaries and allowances of Supreme Court and High Court Judges.
A.    1 only.
B.     2 & 3 only.
C.     1 & 3 only.
D.    1, 2 & 3.
>>The Electoral College for President’s election consist of:?c
1.      Elected members of both the houses of parliament.
2.      Elected members of the legislative assemblies.
3.      Elected members of all Union Territories.
A.    1.
B.     2 & 3.
C.     1 & 2.

D.    1, 2 & 3.