Sunday, 6 March 2016

BIOLOGY AND THEIR STUDIES

Biology was first coined by Lamarck and Treviranus in the year 1801.
Agrology- soil science especially dealing with the production of crops.
Agrostology- study of grass.
Arthrology- study of joints.
Anthology- study of flower and flowering plants.
Andrology- study of male reproductive organs.
Bryology- study of Bryophytes.
Cytology- study of cells.
Cryobiology- study of effect of low temperature on organisms.
Cardiology- study of heart.
Dendrochronology- counting and analysing annual growth rings of tree to know its age.
Embryology- study of fertilization of egg, formation of zygote and development of embryo.
Eugenics- study of factors connected with the improvement of human race.
Ethnology- study of science dealing with different races of human.
Ethology- study of animal behavior in their natured habitats.
Etiology- study of causative agent of disease.
Entomology- study of insects.
Exobiology- study of possibility of life in space.
Floriculture- cultivation of plant for flower.
Fermentation- process of incomplete oxidation that occur in microbes and other cells in absence of oxygen, leading to the formation of ethyl alcohol.
Gynecology- study of female reproductive organs.
Gastroenterology- study of alimentary canal or stomach, intestine and their disease.
Histology- study of tissues via microscope.
Hydroponics- study of growing plant without soil in water which contains the nutrients.
Hematology- study of blood.
Hepatology- study of liver.
Ichthyology- study of fishes.
Kalology- study of human beauty.
Metazoans- all multicellular animals are called metazoans.
Monoecious- plant which have both male and female flower.
Morphology- study of external structure.
Mycology- study of fungi.
Neurology- study of nervous system.
Neonatology- study of new born.
Nephrology- study of kidneys.
Odontology- study of teeth and gums.
Osteology- study of bones.
Ornithology- study of birds.
Ophthalmology- study of eyes.
Sphygmology- study of pulse and arterial pressure.
Saurology- study of lizards.
Rhinology- study of nose and olfactory organs.
Cell word was coined by the British scientist Robert Hooke in the year 1665.
The smallest cell is Mycoplasma gallisepticum.
The longest cell is neuron.
The biggest cell is the Ostrich egg.
Schilden and Schwann established the cell theory.
Cell wall- plant cell there is a rigid cell wall which is non-living and freely permeable, made of cellulose and chitin.
Cell membrane- it forms the outer cover of the animal cells. In plant cells it is present in the inner layer to the cell wall. Made up of phospholipids.
Protoplasm- fluid present in the cell membrane, discovered by Purkenje, contains ions, salts etc. (Cytoplasm- fluid found outer the nuclear membrane/ Nucleoplasm- fluid found inside the nucleus).
Mitochondria- discovered by Altman, fluid present inside is called matrix, it synthesizes energy rich compound ATP.
Golgi Bodies- discovered by Camilo Golgi, made up of a group of tubes/vesicles/vacuoles.
Endoplasmic Reticulum- membranous network of tubules like structure found in the cytoplasm is called endoplasmic reticulum, helps in distribution of materials, forms the supporting framework of cell.
Ribosome- discovered by Palade, small granules like structure found attached to the endoplasmic reticulum, made up of RNA.
Lysosome- discovered by De Duve, sac like structure bounded by single membrane and contains hydrolytic enzyme, known as suicidal bags.
Centrosome- discovered by Boveri, found only in animal cell taking part in cell division.
Plastid- (Chloroplast-contains chlorophyll, known as the kitchen of the cell, granum is the site of light reaction during photosynthesis while stroma is the site of dark reaction), (Chromoplast-provides various colors to plants), (Leucoplast- colorless, stores food in form of starch/fat/protein).
Vacoule- fluid filled single membrane bounded, dead organelles of cell. In Plant cell it is larger than animal cells.
Deoxyribonucleic acid- Frederic Meischer was the 1st who isolated DNA from nucleus. Contains(nitrogen base-purine-adinine, guanine/nitrogen base-pyrimidines-thymine, cytosine), Watson and crick give the structural model of DNA of double helical strand containing polynucleotide strand, contains deoxyribose sugar.
Ribonucleic acid- single stranded nucleic acid made up of phosphate, ribose sugar and nitrogen base uracil, adinine, guarine and cytosine. (mRNA- brings the message from DNA found in the nucleus to cytoplasm in coded form/rRNA- present in ribosome which is the site of protein synthesis/tRNA- it is the carrier of amino acid and transfer it to the ribosome).
Johann Mendel is known as the father of genetics.
Klinefelter Syndrome- when a male have an extra X or Y chromosome in sex chromosome then the condition will be XXY or XYY instead of XY. The individual with this syndrome have masculine development but feminine development is not completely suppressed and the individual becomes sterile. In females they show normal development but limited fertility.
Turner’s Syndrome- when female has single sec chromose(X0) their ovaries are rudimentary and lack secondary sexual characters.
Down’s Syndrome- when an extra chromosome is added to the 21st autosomal chromosome.
Homologous organs- organ which are seen different sue to use in various functions but its structure and embryonic development are similar ex. Flipper of whale, feather of bat, paw of cat.
Analogous organ- organ which looks similar due to be used in similar functions but their internal structure and embryonic development are different. Ex. Feather of butterfly, bats, birds.
Useful Algae: (as food- Porphyra, Ulva, Surgassum, Laeminaria, Nostoc)/ (in making iodine- Laeminaria, Fucus, Echlonia)/ (as manure- Nostoc, Anabina, Kelp)/ (for medicines- Chloreloline from Chlorella and Tincher iodine made from laminaria)/ (in research- Chlorella Acitabularia, Belonia).
An astronaut can get protein food, water and oxygen by sowing Chlorella Algae in the tank of the aircraft, so chlorella is known as space algae.
Sphagnum moss is used to soak water/ Sphagnum moss is used as fuel/ Sphagnum moss is used as an antiseptic.
Smallest plant is Zaimia Pygmia.
Living fossils are Cycas, Gingko biloba and Metasequoia.
Gingko biloba is also called Maiden Hair Tree.
Ovules and Antherzoids of Cycas is the largest in the Plant Kingdom.
Viruses in which RNA substance is found as genetic material are called Retrovirus.
Bacteria was discovered by Anton Von Leuwenhoek.
Some species of Azotobacter, Azospirillum and Clostridium bacteria live freely in the soil and fix atmospheric nitrogen into nitrogenous compound. Anabaena and Nostoc cynobacteria fix atmospheric bacteria into soil.
The species of Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium etc. bacteria live in the roots of the leguminous plants capable of converting atmospheric nitrogen into its compound.
Rate of photosynthesis is maximum in red light and minimum in violet light.
Four pairs of heart in earthworm.
Six feet and four wings in insects.
Cockroaches’ heart have 13 chambers.
 Cobra is the only snake that makes nests.
Heloderma is the only poisonous lizard.
Sea Snake which is called Hydrophis is the world’s most poisonous snake.
Largest zoo in India- Alipur(Kolkata)/ Largest zoo in world- Cruiser National Park(South Africa).
In mammals the highest body temperature is of goat.
Echidna and Duck billed Platypus are egg laying animals.
Serum- when Fibrinogen & protein is extracted out of plasma, the remaining plasma is serum.
RBC contains no nucleus (except-camel & Ilama).
RNC is formed in bone marrow (in embryonic stage it is formed in liver).
Liver (Spleen) is called the grave of RBC.
Iron compound found in hemoglobin is haematin.
The main reason behind the difference in the human blood is the glyco protein which is found in Red Blood Corpuscles called antigen.



No.
Blood Group
Antigen(in RBCs)
Antibody(in plasma)
1.
A
Only A
Only b
2
B
Only B
Only a
3.
AB
Both A & B
Absent
4.
O
Absent
Both a and b
Sino-auricular node- It is specialized area of cardiac muscle fiber in right auricle. SA node is also known as pace maker as it generates each wave of cardiac impulse.
Thyroxine and Adrenaline are hormones which independently controls the heart beat.
639 muscles in human body.
Largest muscle of the body is Gluteus Maximus.
Smallest muscle of the body is Stapedius.
Facts
Example & details
Largest angiosperm tree
Eucalyptus
Longest tree in world
Sequoia Giganteum. This is a gymnosperm. It’s
height is 120m. Also called Red Wood of
California.
Smallest Angiosperm Plant
Lemna.
Plant with largest leaf
Victoria Regia
Largest fruit
Lodoceia
Smallest Pteridophyta
Azolla
Smallest chromosomes
Algae
Longest chromosomes
Trillium
Largest no. of chromosomes in plants
Ophioglossum(Fern)
Least no. of chromosomes in plants
Heplapapopus Gracilis


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