Wednesday, 3 February 2016



Cities which do not have very large population have Municipalities known as Municipal Councils to look after the local cities, their problems and developmental work. After the 74thAmendment, the constitution of Municipalities is obligatory for every concerned city. Every Municipal Council has Councillors who are elected by the adult voters of the city for 5 years. Only those persons can be elected as Councillors who fulfill the conditions laid down by the State Election Commission. If in any case, the Municipal Council gets dissolved before completing the full term of 5 years, the elections for a new Municipal Council will have to be held within six months.

 Chairperson or President of the Municipal Council is elected by the Councillors from among the elected members. Chairperson holds the office till he/ she enjoys the confidence of the majority of the elected members. Every Municipal Council has an Executive Officer who is appointed by the State government. He/She looks after the day-to-day work and also the administration. The Health Officer, Tax Superintendent, Civil Engineer are the other important officers.

Functions of the Municipal Council
Functions of the Municipal Council are as follows:

1. Health and Sanitation - Managing cleanliness of the town, disposal of garbage,prevention of sale of unhygienic and adulterated food items, and maintenance of dispensaries or hospitals;

2. Electricity and Water Supply - Ensuring supply of electricity and safe drinking water, maintaining water tanks and also water tankers;

3. Education - Maintaining and running of primary schools and literacy centres.

4. Birth and Death Records - Keeping the records regarding registration of birth and deaths in the city/town and also issuing the certificates for the same;

5. Public Works - Paving of streets, repairing and maintenance of municipal roads,
construction and maintenance of Barat Ghars, Community Halls, Markets, Public facilities etc.

 Sources of Income
No work can be done without money. Municipal Councils have got different sources of income. These sources can be grouped as under:

 Taxes: Taxes on properties, vehicles, entertainment and advertisement;

 Rents and fees/charges: Charges for water supply, sewer system; Licenses fees, Rents of the community Halls, Barat Ghars and Shops etc.;

 Grants from the State government;

 Fines: Fines from the tax offenders, law breakers, on encroachments etc.

Nagar Panchayats
An urban centre with more than 30,000 and less than 100,000 inhabitants has a Nagar Panchayat. However, there are some exceptions. All the previous Town Area Committees (urban centres with a total population of more than 5,000 and less than 20,000) are designated as Nagar Panchayats. It is composed of a Chairperson and Ward Members. It may have a minimum of ten elected Ward Members and three nominated Members. Like other municipal bodies, Nagar Panchayat is responsible for 

(a) Cleanliness and disposal of garbage; 
(b) Supply of drinking water; 
(c) Maintenance of public amenities like street lights, parking space and public conveniences; 
(d) Setting up and maintaining fire services; and
 (e) Registration of deaths and births. Its sources of income are: Taxes such as house tax, water tax, toll tax; License fees and fee for approving building plans; Rents collected by renting Barat Ghars and other properties; and Grant-in- Aid from the State government.

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